Penetration Testing 

Penetration testing

Contents

Penetration Testing.

What Is the Difference Between Vulnerability Scans and Pen Tests? 

Penetration testing stages. 

Types of Penetration Tests. 

Penetration Testing Tools. 

Penetration testing and web application firewalls. 

Conclusion. 

Penetration Testing 

A penetration test, or pen test at, is a trial to judge the protection of IT infrastructure by safely attempting to take advantage of vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities could exist in operating systems, services and application flaws, improper configurations or risky end-user behavior. Such assessments are helpful in validating the effectuality of defensive mechanisms, also as end-user adherence to security policies. Penetration testing is often performed using manual or machine-controlled technologies to consistently compromise servers, endpoints, internet applications, wireless networks, network devices, mobile devices and different potential points of exposure. Once vulnerabilities are successfully exploited on a selected system, testers could decide to use the compromised system to launch future exploits at different internal resources, specifically by attempting to incrementally accomplish higher levels of security clearance and deeper access to electronic assets and knowledge via privilege escalation.

It might be useful to consider penetration testing as attempting to visualize if somebody will forced an entry your house by doing it yourself. Penetration testers, conjointly called ethical hackers, judge the protection of IT infrastructures employing a controlled surroundings to safely attack, identify, and exploit vulnerabilities. Rather than checking the windows and doors, they take a look at servers, networks, internet applications, mobile devices, and different potential entry points to seek out weaknesses.

What Is the Difference Between Vulnerability Scans and Pen Tests? 

Vulnerability scanners are automated tools that examine associate environment, and upon completion, produce a report of the vulnerabilities uncovered. These scanners typically list these vulnerabilities victimization CVE identifiers that offer data on proverbial weaknesses. Scanners will uncover thousands of vulnerabilities, thus there is also enough severe vulnerability that additional prioritization is required. in addition, these scores don’t account for the circumstances of every individual IT environment. this is often wherever penetration tests are available.

While vulnerability scans offer a valuable image of what potential security weaknesses are present, penetration tests will add extra context by seeing if the vulnerabilities can be leveraged to realize access inside your environment. Pen tests may also facilitate order redress plans supported what poses the foremost risk.

Penetration testing stages 

The pen testing process can be broken down into five stages. 

  1. Planning and reconnaissance The first stage involves: Defining the scope and goals of a test, including the systems to be addressed and the testing methods to be used. Gathering intelligence (e.g., network and domain names, mail server) to better understand how a target works and its potential vulnerabilities. 
  2. Scanning The next step is to understand how the target application will respond to various intrusion attempts. This is typically done using: Static analysis – Inspecting an application’s code to estimate the way it behaves while running. These tools can scan the entirety of the code in a single pass. Dynamic analysis – Inspecting an application’s code in a running state. This is a more practical way of scanning, as it provides a real-time view into an application’s performance. 
  3. Gaining Access This stage uses web application attacks, such as cross-site scripting, SQL injection and backdoors, to uncover a target’s vulnerabilities. Testers then try and exploit these vulnerabilities, typically by escalating privileges, stealing data, intercepting traffic, etc., to understand the damage they can cause. 
  4. Maintaining access The goal of this stage is to see if the vulnerability can be used to achieve a persistent presence in the exploited system long enough for a bad actor to gain in-depth access. The idea is to imitate advanced persistent threats, which often remain in a system for months in order to steal an organization’s most sensitive data. 
  5. Analysis The results of the penetration test are then compiled into a report detailing: Specific vulnerabilities that were exploited. Sensitive data that was accessed. The amount of time the pen tester was able to remain in the system undetected. 

Types of Penetration Tests 

Penetration testing can consist of one or more of the following types of tests: 

White Box Tests 

A white box test is one during which organizations give the penetration testers with a range of security info with reference to their systems, to assist them higher notice vulnerabilities.

Blind Tests 

A blind test, also referred to as a black-box test, organizations give penetration testers with no security info concerning the system being penetrated. The goal is to reveal vulnerabilities that may not be detected otherwise.

Double-Blind Tests 

A double-blind test, that is additionally referred to as a covert test, is one during which not solely do organizations not give penetration testers with security info. They additionally don’t inform their own computer security groups of the tests. Such tests are typically highly controlled by those managing them.

External Tests 

An external test is one during which penetration testers decide to notice vulnerabilities remotely. Owing to the character of those styles of tests, they’re performed on external-facing applications like websites.  

Internal Tests 

An internal test is one during which the penetration testing takes place within an organization’s premises. These tests generally specialist in security vulnerabilities that somebody performing from at intervals a company may profit of.

Targeted testing 

In this state of affairs, each the tester and security personnel work along and keep one another appraised of their movements. This is often a valuable work out that has a security team with period of time feedback from a hacker’s purpose of read.

Penetration Testing Tools 

There are many tools available for the purpose of penetration testing. No single tool can help an organization achieve its goal, but a set of various tools can support them in identifying loopholes in their system. Here, we list a few of the many tools available on the market: 

Nmap: Often referred to as network mapper, nmap is a free and open source tool which allows experts to scan the system for vulnerabilities. Usually, with the help of NMAP, we are able to check which devices are connected with a particular system, scanning ports to determine whether they are open or closed, and detecting loopholes. 

Nessus: It is one of the many tools available to help with identifying vulnerabilities in the system, including any malicious activity. The tool is managed by tenable and is available free to use for individuals or nonenterprise users. 

Metasploit: One of the important frameworks in penetration testing is Metasploit. With the help of this tool, we can develop, test, and exploit the system code. It is available both as open source and as a commercial version 

John the Ripper Password Cracker: Passwords are one of the most prominent vulnerabilities. Attackers may use passwords to steal credentials and enter sensitive systems. John the Ripper is the essential tool for password cracking and provides a range of systems for this purpose. The pen testing tool is free open source software. 

Burp Suite: This tool is ideal for checking web-based applications. There are tools to map the tack surface and analyze requests between a browser and destination servers. The framework uses Web Penetration Testing on the Java platform and is an industry-standard tool used by the majority of information security professionals. 

Kali Linux: Kali Linux advanced penetration testing software is a Linux distribution used for penetration testing. Many experts believe this is the best tool for both injecting and password snipping. However, you will need skills in both TCP/IP protocol to gain the most benefit. An open-source project, Kali Linux, provides tool listings, version tracking, and meta-packages. 

Penetration testing and web application firewalls 

Penetration testing and WAFs square measure exclusive, nevertheless dependent security measures.  

For many forms of pen testing (with the exception of blind and test tests), the tester is probably going to use WAF knowledge, like logs, to find and exploit an application’s weak spots.

In turn, WAF directors will have the benefit of pen testing data. Once a test is completed, WAF configurations will be updated to secure against the weak spots discovered within the test.

Finally, pen testing satisfies a number of the compliance needs for security auditing procedures, together with PCI DSS and SOC 2. bound standards, like PCI-DSS 6.6, will be satisfied solely through the employment of an authorized WAF. Doing so, however, doesn’t build pen testing any less helpful thanks to its aforesaid edges and talent to boost on WAF configurations.

Conclusion 

Penetration testing can benefit organizations in many ways, including preventing monetary losses, preserving the brand reputation, compliance with statute rules and regulations, elimination of potential risks, and so on. 

Penetration testing is a reliable method of identifying and eliminating any security loopholes which systems may face. It is essential to know that as a part of an organization’s security policy, pen-testing should be performed on a regular interval to improve a system’s stability

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